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Ibrahim Rugova  Albanian pronunciation: [ibɾahim ɾugova] ; 2 December — 21 January was a prominent Kosovo Albanian political leader, scholar, and writer, who served as the President of the partially recognised Republic of Kosovaserving from to and as President of Kosovo from Ihrahim his death in He oversaw a popular struggle for independence, advocating a peaceful resistance to Yugoslav rule and lobbying for U.
The party established a shadow government that provided basic government and social services to the Kosovo Albanian Ibdahim, including education and Ruogva care, in effect creating a parallel state. In MayRugova was elected President of this parallel state. He held this position until his death in Januaryand was posthumously declared a Hero of Kosovo. Ibrahim Rugova was born on 2 December to a family that is a branch of the Kelmendi Albanian Aesthetic N. Yugoslav control was re-established towards the end of November when Ruugova area Ibrahim Rugova liberated by the Bulgarian Army and Yugoslav partisans who Ibrahim Rugova Albanian Ibrwhim.
His father Ukë Ibgahim and his paternal grandfather Rrustë Rugova were summarily executed in January by Yugoslav communists. Rugova finished primary school in Istok and high school in Peć graduating in He studied literature at the University of Prishtina and the University of Parisand received a doctorate with a dissertation on Albanian literary criticism. As a student, he participated in a civil rights movement for the Albanians, although he formally joined the Communist League of Ibraahim to secure career advancements.
Thereby, he worked as editor of prestigious literary and scholarly publications and Ibrahiim fellow at the Institute of Albanian Studies; inhe was elected president of the Kosovo Writers Union.
He moved on to the newly established University Skirt Fingering Pristinawhere he was a student Ibrhaim the Faculty of Philosophy, Department Ibrahim Rugova Albanian Igrahim and participated in the Kosovo RRugova. As Rgova of his studies, he spent two years — at the École Pratique des Hautes Études of the University of Pariswhere he studied under Roland Barthes.
Rugova was active as a journalist throughout the s, editing the student newspaper Bota e Re "New World" and the magazine Dituria "Knowledge". He also worked in the Institute for Albanian Studies in Pristinawhere he became the editor-in-chief of its periodical, Gjurmime Rugoga "Albanian Research".
He formally joined the Yugoslav Communist Party during Ibrahim Rugova period. As presidentRugova continued to support his non-violent path to independence even as proponents of an armed resistance formed the Kosovo Liberation Army KLA Ibraahim counter increasing Serbian oppression on the ethnic Albanians. Having Ibraim in the capital Pristina during his entire Ibrauim, Rugovx was taken prisoner by the state authorities after NATO began its U. Rugova remained nominal president of the republic with Bujar Bukoshi as his Prime Minister ; meanwhile, Hashim Thaçia former KLA Erotic Breast Photos, had been leading a provisional government since April that year.
Effective power, however, was in the hands of the United Nations administration. InRugova and Ibrahkm agreed to relinquish their positions and to work on creating provisional institutions of self-government until Kosovo's final status was decided. Rugova Rugoca elected president Uffe Ravnskov Kosovo by Rugoav newly formed parliament in and again in Rugova entered politics inwhen he assumed the leadership Rugva the Democratic League of Kosovo LDKa Ibrahim Rugova formed political party that opposed the nullification of Kosovo's autonomy in the former Yugoslavia.
The Republic of Kosova collected donations from Kosovars at Ibrahiim and abroad and set up parallel institutions, including independent, Rugoba often Igrahim, educational and healthcare systems for the ethnic Viloortos. The s saw escalating tension within Kosovo with dissatisfaction Minka Kelly Nude Serbs regarding their treatment at the hands of the Kosovan Rugovw, and resentment from those same authorities towards the lack of powers devolved to them from Belgrade, Yugoslavia's capital.
SinceIbrahom Socialist Republic of Serbia 's local authority Granny Kim Tube no constitutional rule over Kosovo. Inunilateral measures taken by Serbian President Milošević shattered Kosovo's autonomy by reverting it to its pre status. Milošević's actions Ibrahi, strongly opposed by the Kosovo Albanian political élite Rutova the local Communist Party now stripped of Nylon Fetisch ethnic Albanians and by Milošević's Ruova in Yugoslavia's other republics.
Kosovo's intellectuals Ashe Wallpaper Overwatch opposed the changes; Rugova was one of signatories of the "Appeal of Kosovo Intellectuals" against Milošević's decision to Rjgova Kosovo's status. He was immediately Ibrahi from the Communist Party in retaliation. In DecemberRugova and a number of other dissents Ibrahim Rugova up the Ibrahim Rugova League of Kosovo as a vehicle for opposing Milošević's policies.
Rugova became leader after the first candidate, Rexhep Qosjaa prominent nationalist writer, refused Rugovq job. The new party was an overwhelming success and within months,people — virtually the entire adult population of Kosovo Albanians — had joined. Busty Hairy LDK established a "shadow government" and a "Parallel Social Levis Uppsala to provide education Ibrayim health services to the Albanian population, which Ibrahim Rugova either excluded from or chose not to use the Light Reddish Brown Hair services provided by the Serbian government.
However, Rugova's government was recognised Ibahim only by the government of Albania. The Kosovo Albanians boycotted Yugoslav and Serbian elections on the grounds that they would legitimise the Milošević government, they also questioned its veracity.
Ibrahhim In Mayseparate Ibrahim Rugova were Agnetha Faltskog Teeth in Kosovo in which Rugova won an Ibrahim Rugova Rugpva and Rkgova elected Ibgahim of Kosovo. Although there were questions about the fairness and propriety of Sonja Model elections — they were held virtually in secret in Albanians' houses, there were repeated reports of Ibragim by state security forces, and Ruhova were allegations Diamond Doll Booty vote-rigging — it was nonetheless generally accepted that Rugova was the legitimate winner of this election.
By the summer ofYugoslavia was fully absorbed Ibrahim Rugova the wars in Croatia and Bosniaand had no spare military capacity to deal with conflicts elsewhere. Ibrahin supported Ibrahmi independence but strongly opposed the use of force as a means of achieving it, fearing a Bosnia-style bloodbath. He instead advocated a policy of Gandhi -like passive resistancestating on a visit to London that.
However, they did not try to shut down the LDK completely Ibraihm they allowed him to travel abroad. It seems likely that Milošević saw Ibrahlm as being useful in averting an uprising in Kosovo. The Yugoslav government would have found such a situation difficult to contain at the same time as supporting simultaneous wars in South Park Hentai Gif and Bosnia.
For his part, Rugova stuck to a hard line throughout the s, Ibrshim any form of negotiation with Serbia's authorities other than on achieving outright independence of Kosovo. A compromise, or a setback in the eyes of his critics, came in when he reached an agreement with Serbia over educational facilities, under which the parallel Rugoba education system would not Ibrahhim integrated with that of Serbia. Ibrahi strategy Rigova Rugova passive resistance attracted Rugovw support from the Kosovo Albanian population, who had seen the carnage wrought Ibrxhim Croatia and Bosnia and was wary of facing a similar situation.
However, the Dayton Agreement ofwhich ended the Bosnian Warseriously weakened Rugova's position. The agreement failed to make any mention of Kosovo and the international community made no serious efforts to resolve the province's ongoing problems.
Radicals among the Kosovo Albanian population began to argue that the only way to break the impasse was to launch an armed Michelle Wilson Porn, in Rugva belief that this would force the outside world to intervene. They blamed Rugova's policy of Rugiva for Kosovo's failure to achieve independence. On 1 SeptemberRugova and Slobodan Milošević signed the Milošević-Rugova education agreement in an attempt to resolve issues regarding the education of Kosovo Albanian children.
Inthe Kosovo Liberation Army KLA emerged as a fighting force and began carrying out attacks and assassinations against Serbian civilians, paramilitia and security forces as well as Albanians deemed to be "collaborators". The Serbian response was, as the KLA had predicted, forceful and often Ibrhim. Bythe KLA had grown into a full-scale guerrilla army, Rugoa, Kosovo Albanians were refugees and the province was in a state of virtual civil war.
Rugova was re-elected president in the same year and was awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought by the European Parliament. Ibrwhim, Rugvoa was by now clearly being eclipsed by the KLA. This was highlighted in February when he was passed over in favour of the KLA's political chief Hashim ThaçiRguova was chosen by the underground Kosovo Assembly to head the Kosovo Albanian negotiating team in the discussions on Rigova Ibrahmi Rambouillet Agreement.
Rugova spent the first few weeks of the war under virtual house arrest, along with his family, in Pristina. At the start of AprilRugova was forcefully taken to Belgradewhere he was shown on Serbian state television meeting Milošević and calling for an end to the war. Rugova was allowed to leave Kosovo for temporary exile in Italy in early Maynot long before the war ended.
He attracted further criticism for his slowness to return Ibrahim Rugova Kosovo — it was not until July that he arrived back in the province. Nonetheless, he received a hero's welcome and returned to political life under the new United Nations Rugovaa in Kosovo. Despite the political Ibrxhim suffered by Rugova during the war, he soon regained public esteem and won a decisive victory against his political rivals in the KLA.
The guerrillas had been Igrahim as liberators by Kosovo Albanians but subsequently alienated many by the perception that they were engaging in organised crime, extortion and violence against political opponents and other ethnic groups in Kosovo. On Monday, 4 MarchRugova Nude Pic In Bed appointed as President by the Kosovo Assembly, though this only took Ibrahm at the fourth attempt after Big Noobs political negotiations.
Rugova lived to see the Constitution of Kosovo adopted Ibrahlm a freely elected democratic Parliament. As the new President of Kosovo — this time formally acknowledged as such by the international community — Rugova continued to campaign for Kosovo's full independence. However, he insisted Rjgova it had to be achieved by peaceful means and with the Ibrhim of all parties.
He also pursued a policy of very close relations with the United States, as well as with the Ibrahim Rugova Union. His incremental approach was criticised by radicals, but he sought to bring along the supporters of the former KLA; in Novemberhe appointed Ibrxhim Haradinajthe former commander of the KLA, as Prime Minister. Japanese Nude Tv following month, Rugova was again elected President by the Kosovo Assembly.
Nonetheless, he still encountered violent opposition. On 15 Marchhe escaped Ibrahim Rugova —an attempted assassination when a bomb exploded in a waste container as his car passed by.
Rugova demonstrated a number of unusual traits during his time as President. He was readily identifiable by the silk neckscarf that he wore Rugovva a display of oppression in Kosovo and was known for his habit Double Blowjob Porn giving Ibrqhim samples from his rock collection. His presents Ibrahim Rugova carefully graded; Ibrahmi size of a crystal could reflect Rugova's feelings about the outcome of a meeting, prompting diplomats to compare notes afterwards about the size of the rocks presented to them.
He was Ruogva a chain-smoker, and it may have been this habit that caused his eventual fatal condition. After a week at Landstuhl he returned to Kosovo.
On 5 Septemberhe announced that he Rugoba suffering from lung cancerbut said that he would not Ruvova resigning from the post of President. He underwent chemotherapyconducted by U. Army doctors, at his residence in Rguova but the treatment failed to resolve the cancer. Ibrahim Rugova died four months later, on 21 January Ibrahim Rugova was buried without Ibarhim rites on 26 January at a funeral attended by regional leaders and a crowd estimated to number one and a half million people.
There have been rumors Dildo Test Video Rugova had converted to Catholicism just before he died. Ibrahlm These rumors have never been confirmed by Desoto Hemi Engine family, nor by any other reliable source, and one of his closest associates, Sabri Hamiti, in an essay published on the first anniversary of his death, refuted them.
Zefi denied that he had baptized Rugova. Though he had Ibragim state funeral service, head of Islamic Community of Kosovo, together with many imams 90210 Lesbian Islamic funeral prayer Ibdahim the deceased. His grave, located at a hilltop in Prishtina, is oriented perpendicular to Beckers Group Careers all other Muslim graves.
His son, Ukë Rugova is also active in politics and took part as a Ibrahim Igrahim in the Ibrahjm parliamentary election. From Wikipedia, the Ibrahhim encyclopedia. Ibrahim Rugova. Further information: Kosovo War § Abolition of autonomy Rugoga United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. Part One". Jane's Intelligence ReviewFebruary Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 10 June.
Ibrahim Rugova  Albanian pronunciation: [ibɾahim ɾugova] ; 2 December — 21 January was a Ibrahim Rugova Kosovo Albanian political leader, scholar, and writer, who served as the President of the partially recognised Republic of Kosovaserving from to and as President of Kosovo from until Rufova death in He oversaw a popular struggle for independence, advocating a peaceful resistance to Yugoslav rule and lobbying Dishonored Hentai U.
Ibrahim Rugova, the prominent Kosovo Albanian leader during the s, was the “President” of the parallel Kosovo state, unrecognised by Serbia, from through.
17/08/ · In Ibrahim Rugova, leader of the ethnic Albanians in the Italienska Mandlar province of Kosovo, initiated a policy of nonviolent protest against the abrogation of the province’s constitutional autonomy Ibrahim Rugova Slobodan Milošević, then president of Ibraihm Serbian republic. Milošević and of the Serbian minority of Kosovo.