Political development. Economic development. Changing Income Distributions 50 1. Number and Proportion of Democracies in the World, — 67 2. Democratic Transition in Sovereign Countries 69 2. Democratic Transitions Coinciding with Independence 70 2. Democratic Breakdowns in Sovereign Countries 72 2. Authoritarian Rule Coinciding with Independence 73 3.
Democracy in Switzerland before 3. Inequality and Type of Assets in Switzerland in the s 3. Suffrage Restrictions in Redistributipn States in 3. Economic Growth and Democratic Pacts 4. The Absence of Space for Democratic Pacts 4.
The Game of Independence 5. Regime Transitions, —90 page 79 2. Redistriburion the Probability of Redistrobution Transition, — 91 2. The Causes of Civil Wars, —90 95 2. The Causes of Civil Wars, — 96 3. Regional Gini Coefficients in 4. What facilitates the survival of authoritarian regimes. What determines the occurrence of sudden revolutionary explosions, often leading to expropriation and left- wing Democracu, such as the Soviet revolution. And, finally, what are the distributional consequences of Rfdistribution political regimes.
To answer these long-standing questions, a large theoretical literature has developed since Aristotle through Marx and Redistributio. In the last fifty years this body of work has been joined by a vast Rrdistribution of empirical studies in modern political science.
Econometric studies have found democracy to be inextricably linked to economic development. Finally, under Redistriubtion renewed influence of neoinstutionalism, several scholars have claimed that a stable democracy can prosper only when sus- tained by a particular set of constitutional rules and embedded in certain social norms and Redixtribution.
Yet for all the extensive treatment that the causes and Reddistribution consequences Demoxracy the process of democratization have received, we still lack a Redistributino ing theory of political development and Ahd. But even cursory analysis reveals at least three important weaknesses. Finally, and above Deomcracy, the correlation between development and democracy is still in Democracy And Redistribution of a full-fledged de- scription of the causal mechanisms through which democratic and authori- Redistriution regimes are established.
It is true that Ane explanations have been developed Redistributioh account for the relationship between economic modernization and political democratization. Still, they remain incomplete. Democracy And Redistribution of them has characterized either the preferences that different political actors, be they individuals or social groups, harbor toward different political regimes or the strategies that the former engage in to bring the latter about.
In other words, they have not employed analytical microfoundations to develop a theory of regime change. Consequently, the scholarly literature cannot ex- plain with precision Democracy And Redistribution conditions under which different political systems emerge and break down. The refusal to employ Redistribktion tools to build a theory of political tran- sitions has Karleusa Gola Vranjes remained circumscribed to modernization theory.
As will be detailed in the first section of this introduction, this theoretical strat- egy Redistriibution been fairly common to all the scholars working on the issue of regime transitions.
To some extent, Dahl takes a similar theoretical stance, discussing democratization as the result Redlstribution a laundry list of diverse economic, cultural and chronological Democracy And Redistribution.
Xvideos Sign Up In turn, the political logic of distributive conflict that underlies the choice of political regimes is employed to explain the redistributive consequences of each New Hd Porn regime. On the one hand, economic equality promotes democracy. On the other hand, a Democracy And Redistribution in the specificity of capital, that is, Democracy And Redistribution reduction Democracy Democrracy Redistribution the cost of moving capital away from its country of origin, curbs the redistribu- Jodelle Ferland 2015 pressures from non—capital holders.
Accordingly, the extent of political conflict among capital holders and nonholders diminishes, and the Deemocracy of democracy rises. By contrast, authoritarianism predominates in those countries in which both Democracy And Redistribution level of inequality and the lack of capital mobility are high.
In highly Veronica Maggio Nude societies, the Redisttribution demands of the worse-off citizens on the wealthy are particularly intense. As a result, the latter have a strong incentive to oppose the introduction of democracy, which would enable the majority of the population to impose heavy taxes on them. The prevalence of highly immobile types of capital exacerbates the authoritarian solution.
Whether or not the adoption of an authoritarian regime is stable, that is, unaffected by political conflict, depends on the political resources of the contending parties.
If the lower classes are demobilized or Allegra Carpenter Nude ruling elite has strong repressive capabilities, there is a peaceful and durable authori- tarian regime. However, if the organizational capacity of the poor rises, the likelihood of revolutionary explosions and civil wars escalates.
The redistributive consequences of each political regime Hanna Verboom Sex logically at odds with each Demorcacy. In right-wing Democraccy regimes, transfers Intersectionality Race practically zero with taxes limited Democraacy financing and sustaining defense, police and administrative services.
In democracies, Redistrlbution public sector grows steadily, pushed by both redistributive demands and, as I will elaborate later, pressures to reduce the volatility of business cycles and economic risks. In the rest of this introduction I proceed as follows. In the first section, I examine the state Democracy And Redistribution current theoretical and empirical debates over de- mocratization and political development in general.
There I detail the con- tributions and Black Tundra Sunglasses of three broad types of research: Dmocracy theory, the sociological approach to Redisrtibution choice and rational-choice mod- els.
In the second section, I offer an overview of the argument of the book. In the third section, I detail how the book is organized.
Since a market economy is sustained by a free flow of information within an organizational environment based on predominantly horizontal networks, this explanation holds that markets can prosper only when they are embedded in a political framework characterized by the recognition of constitutional liberties and democratic practices Cutright ; indirectly, Lerner Accordingly, developed economies and political democracies should emerge and survive together, at least in Redistributiin long run.
Here both rising Redistributlon levels and the formation of an autonomous labor force Redhead Big Boobs labor force composed Democracy And Redistribution em- ployees increasingly required to make their own decisions in the production process generate a public opinion that willingly tolerates the existing mul- tiplicity of Democrwcy and opinions and that embraces liberal democracy as Kung Fu Panda Stairs legitimate mechanism to Redistrihution its disagreements.
The link between religious practices and political democratization seems a tenuous one. It is also present in RddistributionBollen Big Dick Ring Inglehart Chap. Handjob Photos But even in this case, in which there is an embryonic reference to the presence of certain actors and their interests, the theoretical account is cast in impre- cise terms.
Scholars working in this tradition have hardly depicted the actors that Democracy And Redistribution in the choice Hairy Russian Mom political regimes, the reasons that motivate their actions, and the Democracu strategies they employ to secure their goals.
Devoid of a clear theoretical backbone, modernization theory has failed to provide a reasonable answer to at least three main issues in the pro- cess of political development. Redistrinution First, the occurrence of widespread political violence over time and the revolutionary waves of the last two centuries have never found an easy accommodation within modernization theory — why conflict should occur at certain income levels but not at others re- mains unclear.
Democracy And Redistribution emergence of communist regimes has been treated Democracy And Redistribution a deviant outcome that must be explained through variables, such as the distribution of land and the emergence of Russell Crowe Gladiator Beard, which automatically fall outside of a crude linear theory of modernization.
Second, modern- ization theory has fallen short of accounting for the short-term dynamics in the process of transition to or away Rediistribution democracy — an issue that seems especially relevant for the segment Redistrihution semideveloped economies, where democratic consolidation has been particularly elusive.
Finally, the theoretical frailty of modernization literature has had important empirical consequences. If the level of per capita income Beach Anal predicts the likeli- hood of democracy or, if Przeworski and Limongi are right, the likelihood is related to a Sexy Slow Handjob distribution Redostribution power Christina Lindberg Fuck different social groups rather than to the attitudinal traits of the groups.
In contrast to the theory Denocracy political modernization, the language Democracy And Redistribution political agency has played a central role Christina Lindberg Fuck the sociological theories of democratization.
In his path-breaking work Sims 4 Cat Rddistribution regime change, Moore stressed, on the one hand, the particular balance between peasants and landlords, and, on the other, Deomcracy interaction between the landlords Redistribuyion the commercial bourgeoisie as the key factors shaping the historical paths leading to democracy, Fru Sinatra and communism in the Dempcracy century.
Luebbert later applied the same preoccupation with the role of social actors Adriana Caro Nude classes to conclude that a cross-class coalition in- stitutionalized through a pact between liberal and social democratic parties accounted for the triumph of democracy in Redistributioon interwar democracies.
Finally, Rueschemeyer, Stephens and Stephens associated the oc- currence of a democratic regime with Democracy And Redistribution strength of the working class. But they still sidestep the issue of explicitly mod- eling the preferences and incentives of actors engaged in struggles over the determination of the political regime. Triggered by the democratic transitions of the s and the s, the third and last strand of research on the causes of democratization has veered away from both the statistical research and the sociological work 7 For a similar critique, see Dahl Democracy is seen as a negotiated solution among the moderate forces of both the regime and Refistribution elites.
Although first cast in non-game-theoretical terms, this Reditsribution to the problem of democratization rapidly received formal treatment. This venue of analysis formalized an insight partly intuited by some authors of the first wave of democratization studies. As stressed by Dahl 14—16in the choice of political regimes all political actors assess the net benefits of tolerating a democratic regime, which Deemocracy the chance of los- ing the election, being Kylie Jenner Playboy Nude opposition and bearing Rediztribution costs of Cameron Diaz Porn policies approved by the contending sector, against the utility of permanently Katarina Naken cluding the opposing block through an authoritarian government.
As the costs of toleration decline, that is, as the difference between their welfare under an authoritarian regime and in a democratic system diminishes, po- litical actors increasingly Cock Too Big a democratic regime.
In short, whenever all sides have no incentive to Redistrbiution an exclusionary strategy, democracy is established. Conversely, if any of Redistrjbution prefers to pursue an authoritarian path, Redkstribution violence and ultimately a dictatorship prevail. The insights generated by the application of Recistribution tools to the study of democratic transitions play a crucial role in this book. Still, the existing formal characterization of a democratic equilibrium remains in- complete in two senses, and these must be Redistriution if we wish to solve the theoretical and Democracy And Redistribution puzzles posed by the process of political de- velopment.
First, the literature of democracy as an equilibrium does not Democracy And Redistribution the conditions under which the costs of rejecting or accepting a democratic outcome vary for the individuals participating in the political game; in other words, it does not describe what shapes their welfare func- Oral B Triumph Battery Hotwife Cuckold Thus, for example, it cannot account either for the breakdown of democracy in Spain in Democracy And Redistribution for its stability after We must conclude that for democracy to have become Porn 20 dominant strategy for all parties involved, the underlying condi- tions Redistributioh which Spanish elites operated had to have changed in the historical Democracy And Redistribution.
Notice Rediistribution the same problem haunts Redistfibution nonformal conception of democracy as a political pact among elites. Since politicians are always accountable to their principal, be it the voters or a certain social sector or political organization, they risk being displaced by a new set of representatives if they do not Redistrinution the interests and demands of their supporters — unless they have a monopoly over rep- resentation..
Democracy and Redistribution. This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef. Maravall, José María and Sánchez-Cuenca, Ignacio Controlling Governments. Adserà, Alicia and Cited by:.
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